- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: No
- Included in Naves: Yes
- Included in Smiths: No
- Included in Websters: Yes
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: Yes
- Included in BDB: Yes
Heb. ner, Job 18:6; 29:3; Psalms 18:28; Proverbs 24:20, in all which places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The Hebrew word denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or torch. It is used as a figure of conscience (Proverbs 20:27), of a Christian example (Matthew 5:14, 15), and of prosperity (Job 21:17; Proverbs 13:9).
1. A long, but small cylindrical body of tallow, wax or spermaceti, formed on a wick composed of linen or cotton threads, twisted loosely; used for a portable light of domestic use.
2. A light.
Excommunication by inch of candle is when the offender is allowed time to repent, while a candle burns, and is then excommunicated.
Sale by inch of candle is an auction in which persons are allowed to bid, only till a small piece of candle burns out.
Medicated candle in medicine, a bougie.
Rush-candles are used in some countries; they are made of the pith of certain rushes, peeled except on one side, and dipped in grease.
CANDLE-BERRY TREE, noun The Maraca cerifera, or wax-bearing myrtle; a shrub common in North America, from the berries of which a kind of wax or oil is procured, of which candles are made. The oil is obtained by boiling the berries in water; the oil rising to the surface is skimmed of, and when cool, is of the consistence of wax, and of a dull green color. In popular language, this is called bayberry tallow.
CANDLE-BOMB, noun A small glass bubble, filled with water, place in the wick of a candle, where it bursts with a report.
CANNEL-COAL or CANDLE-COAL noun A hard, opake, inflammable fossil coal of a black color, sufficiently solid to be cut and polished. On fire it decrepitates and breaks into angular fragments. It is sometimes used for inkholders and toys.
CANDLE-HOLDER, noun A person that holds a candle. Hence, one that remotely assists another, but is otherwise not of importance.
CANDLE-LIGHT, noun The light of a candle; the necessary candles for use.
CANDLEMAS, noun The feast of the church celebrated on the second day of February, in honor of the purification of the Virgin Mary; so called from the great number of lights used on that occasion. This feast is supposed to have originated in the declaration of Simeon, that our Savior was to be a light to lighten the Gentiles. On this day, the Catholics consecrate all the candles and tapers which are to be used in their churches during the whole year. In Rome, the pope performs the ceremony himself, and distributes wax candles to the cardinals and others, who carry them in procession through the great hall of the popes palace. The ceremony was prohibited in England by an order of council in 1548. But candlemas is one of the four terms for paying and receiving rents and interest; and it gives name to a law term, beginning Jan. 15, and ending Feb. 3.
CANDLES-ENDS, noun Scraps; fragments.
The lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Exodus 25:31-40; 37:17-24, and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight.
The tabernacle was a tent without windows, and thus artificial light was needed. This was supplied by the candlestick, which, however, served also as a symbol of the church or people of God, who are "the light of the world." The light which "symbolizes the knowledge of God is not the sun or any natural light, but an artificial light supplied with a specially prepared oil; for the knowledge of God is in truth not natural nor common to all men, but furnished over and above nature."
This candlestick was placed on the south side of the Holy Place, opposite the table of shewbread (Exodus 27:21; 30:7, 8; Leviticus 24:3; 1 Samuel 3:3). It was lighted every evening, and was extinguished in the morning. In the morning the priests trimmed the seven lamps, borne by the seven branches, with golden snuffers, carrying away the ashes in golden dishes (Exodus 25:38), and supplying the lamps at the same time with fresh oil. What ultimately became of the candlestick is unknown.
In Solomon's temple there were ten separate candlesticks of pure gold, five on the right and five on the left of the Holy Place (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chronicles 4:7). Their structure is not mentioned. They were carried away to Babylon (Jeremiah 52:19).
In the temple erected after the Exile there was again but one candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches. It was this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where it was deposited in the Temple of Peace. When Genseric plundered Rome, he is said to have carried it to Carthage (A.D. 455). It was recaptured by Belisarius (A.D. 533), and carried to Constantinople and thence to Jerusalem, where it finally disappeared.
Of the tabernacle:
Burned every night
Trimmed every morning
Called Lamp of God
1 Samuel 3:3
Of the temple:
Ten branches of
1 Kings 7:49-50
Taken with other spoils to Babylon
1. which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, is described (Exodus 25:31-37; 37:17-24) It was not strictly a "candlestick," as it held seven richly-adorned lamps. With its various appurtenances it required a talent of "pure gold;" and it was not moulded, but "of beaten work," and has been estimated to have been worth in our money over ,000. From the Arch of Titus, where the sculptured the spoils taken from Jerusalem, we learn that it consisted of a central stem, with six branches, three on each side. It was about five feet high. [See ARCH OF TITUS] The candlestick was placed on the south side of the first apartment of the tabernacle, opposite the table of shewbread, (Exodus 25:37) and was lighted every evening and dressed every morning. (Exodus 27:20,21; 30:8) comp. 1 Samuel 3:2 Each lamp was supplied with cotton and about two wineglasses of the purest olive oil, which was sufficient to keep it burning during a long night. In Solomon's temple, instead of or in addition to this candlestick there were ten golden candlesticks similarly embossed, five in the right and five on the left. (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chronicles 4:7) They were taken to Babylon. (Jeremiah 52:19) In the temple of Zerubbabel there was again a single candlestick. 1Macc 1.21, 4.49.
2. in (Matthew 5:15; Mark 4:21) is merely a lamp-stand, made in various forms, to hold up the simple Oriental hand-lamps.
3. geographical. This word occurs as the prefix or suffix to the names of several places in Palestine, some of which are as follows-
- BAAL a town of Simeon, named only in (1 Chronicles 4:33) which from the parallel list in (Joshua 19:8) seems to have been identical with BAALATH-BEER.
- BAALAH (mistress). A. Another name for KIRJATH-JEARIM, or KIRJATH BAAL, the well-known town now Kuriet el Enab . (Joshua 15:9,10; 1 Chronicles 13:6) b. A town in the south of Judah, (Joshua 15:29) which in Joshua 19:3 Is called BALAH, and in the parallel list, (1 Chronicles 4:29) BILHAH.
- BAALATH (mistress), a town of Dan named with Gibbethon, Gath-rim-mon and other Philistine places. (Joshua 19:44)
- BAALATH-BEER (lord of the well). BAAL 1, a town among those in the south part of Judah, given to Simeon, which also bore the name of RAMATH-NEGEB, or "the height of the south." (Joshua 19:8)
- BAAL-GAD (lord of fortune), used to denote the most northern, (Joshua 11:17; 12:7) or perhaps northwestern, (Joshua 13:5) point to which Joshua's victories extended. It was in all probability a Phoenician or Canaanite sanctuary of Baal under the aspect of Gad or Fortune.
- BAAL-HAMON (lord of a multitude), a place at which Solomon had a vineyard, evidently of great extent. (Solomon 8:11)
- BAAL-HAZOR (village of Baal), a place where Absalom appears to have had a sheep-farm, and where Amnon was murdered. (2 Samuel 13:23)
- MOUNT, MOUNT, MOUNTAIN BAAL-HERMON (Lord of Hermon), (Judges 3:3) and simply Baal-hermon. (1 Chronicles 5:23) This is usually considered as a distinct place from Mount Hermon; but we know that this mountain had at least three names (3:9) and Baal-hermon may have been a fourth in use among the Phoenician worshippers.
- BAAL-MEON (lord of the house), one of the towns which were built by the Reubenites. (Numbers 32:38) It also occurs in (1 Chronicles 5:8) and on each occasion with Nebo. In the time of Ezekiel it was Moabite, one of the cities which were the "glory of the country." (Ezekiel 25:9)
- BAAL-PERAZIM (lord of divisions), the scene of a victory of David over the Philistines, and of a great destruction of their images. (2 Samuel 5:20; 1 Chronicles 14:11) See (Isaiah 28:21) where it is called MOUNT, MOUNT, MOUNTAIN PERAZIM.
- BAAL-SHALISHA (lord of Shalisha), a place named only in (2 Kings 4:42) apparently not far from Gilgal; comp. (2 Kings 4:38)
- BAAL-TAMAR (lord of the palm tree), a place named only in (Judges 20:33) as near Gibeah of Benjamin. The palm tree (tamar) of Deborah, (Judges 4:5) was situated somewhere in the locality, and is possibly alluded to.
- BAAL-ZEPHON (lord of the north), a place in Egypt near where the Isr'lites crossed the Red Sea. (Numbers 33:7; Ezekiel 14:2,9) We place Baal-zephon on the western shore of the Gulf of Suez, a little below its head, which at that time was about 30 or 40 miles northward of the Present head.
CANDLE-STICK, noun An instrument or utensil to hold a candle, made in different forms and of different materials; originally a stick or piece of wood.
CANDLE-STUFF, noun A material of which candles are made, as tallow, wax, etc.