The Bible

Bible Usage:


  • Included in Eastons: Yes
  • Included in Hitchcocks: No
  • Included in Naves: Yes
  • Included in Smiths: Yes
  • Included in Websters: Yes
  • Included in Strongs: Yes
  • Included in Thayers: Yes
  • Included in BDB: No

Strongs Concordance:


Easton's Bible Dictionary

In the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Ephesians 2:16; Hebrews 12:2; 1 Corinthians 1:17, 18; Galatians 5:11; 6:12, 14; Philippians 3:18). The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).

The forms in which the cross is represented are these-

1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."

2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.

3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.

4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the projecting beam, was placed the "title." (See CRUCIFIXION.)

After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (B.C. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega. (See A.)

Naves Topical Index

Smith's Bible Dictionary

As the emblem of a slave's death and a murderer's punishment, the cross was naturally looked upon with the profoundest horror. But after the celebrated vision of Constantine, he ordered his friends to make a cross of gold and gems, such as he had seen, and "the towering eagles resigned the flags unto the cross," and "the tree of cursing and shame" "sat upon the sceptres and was engraved and signed on the foreheads of kings." (Jer. Taylor, "Life of Christ," iii., xv. 1.) The new standards were called by the name Labarum, and may be seen on the coins of Constantine the Great and his nearer successors. The Latin cross on which our Lord suffered, was int he form of the letter T, and had an upright above the cross-bar, on which the "title" was placed. There was a projection from the central stem, on which the body of the sufferer rested. This was to prevent the weight of the body from tearing away the hands. Whether there was also a support to the feet (as we see in pictures) is doubtful. An inscription was generally placed above the criminal's head, briefly expressing his guilt, and generally was carried before him. It was covered with white gypsum, and the letter were black.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS, noun [G., Latin ]

1. A gibbet consisting of two pieces of timber placed across each other, either in form of a T or of an X. That on which our Savior suffered, is represented on coins and other monuments, to have been of the former kind.

2. The ensign of the Christian religion; and hence figuratively, the religion itself.

3. A monument with a cross upon it to excite devotion, such as were anciently set in market places.

4. Any thing in the form of a cross or gibbet.

5. A line drawn through another.

6. Any thing that thwarts, obstructs, or perplexes; hindrance; vexation; misfortune; opposition; trial of patience.

Heaven prepares good men with crosses.

7. Money or coin stamped with the figure of a cross

8. The right side or face of a coin, stamped with a cross

9. The mark of a cross instead of a signature, on a deed, formerly impressed by those who could not write.

10. Church lands in Ireland.

11. In theology, the suffering of Christ by crucifixion.

That he might reconcile both to God in one body by the cross Ephesians 2:16.

12. The doctrine of Christs sufferings and of the atonement, or of salvation by Christ.

The preaching of the cross is to them that perish, foolishness. 1 Corinthians 1:17. Galatians 5:11.

To take up the cross is to submit to troubles and afflictions from love to Christ.

13. In mining, two nicks cut in the surface of the earth, thus +.

CROSS and pile, a play with money, at which it is put to chance whether a coin shall fall with that side up, which bears the cross or the other which is called pile or reverse.

CROSS, adjective

1. Transverse; oblique; passing from side to side; falling athwart; as a cross beam.

The cross refraction of a second prism.

2. Adverse; opposite; obstructing; sometimes with to; as an event cross to our inclinations.

3. Perverse; untractable; as the cross circumstances of a mans temper.

4. Peevish; fretful; ill-humored; applied to persons or things; as a cross woman or husband; a cross answer.

5. Contrary; contradictory; perplexing.

Contradictions that seem to lie cross and uncouth.

6. Adverse; unfortunate.

Behold the cross and unlucky issue of my design.

7. Interchanged; as a cross marriage, when a brother and sister intermarry with two persons who have the same relation to each other.

8. Noting what belongs to an adverse party; as a cross interrogatory.

CROSS, preposition Athwart; transversely; over; from side to side; so as to intersect.

This is admissible in poetry, as an abbreviation of across.

CROSS, verb transitive

1. To draw or run a line, or lay a body across another; as, to cross a word in writing; to cross the arms.

2. To erase; to cancel; as, to cross an account.

3. To make the sign of the cross as catholics in devotion.

4. To pass from side to side; to pass or move over; as, to cross a road; to cross a river, or the ocean. I crossed the English channel, from Dieppe to Brighton, in a steam-boat, Sept. 18, 1824.

5. To thwart; to obstruct; to hinder; to embarrass; as, to cross a purpose or design.

6. To counteract; to clash or interfere with; to be inconsistent with; as, natural appetites may cross our principles.

7. To counteract or contravene; to hinder by authority; to stop. [See No. 5.]

8. To contradict.

9. To debar or preclude.

To cross the breed of an animal, is to produce young from different varieties of the species.

CROSS, verb intransitive

1. To lie or be athwart.

2. To move or pass laterally, or from one side towards the other, or from place to place, either at right angles or obliquely; as, to cross from Nantucket to New Bedford.

3. To be inconsistent; as, mens actions d not always cross with reason.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-ARMED, adjective With arms across. In botany, brachiate; decussated; having branches in pairs, each at right angles with the next.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-BARRED, adjective Secured by transverse bars.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-BAR-SHOT, noun A bullet with an iron bar passing through it, and standing out a few inches on each side; used in naval actions for cutting the enemys rigging.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-BEARER, noun In the Romish church, the chaplain of an archbishop or primate, who bears a cross before him on solemn occasions. Also, a certain officer in the inquisition, who makes a vow before the inquisitors to defend the Catholic faith, though with the loss of fortune and life.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-BILL, noun In chancery, an original bill by which the defendant prays relief against the plaintiff.

CROSS-BILL, noun A species of bird, the Loxia curvirostra, the mandibles of whose bill curve opposite ways and cross each other.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-BITE, noun A deception; a cheat.

CROSS-BITE, verb transitive To thwart or contravene by deception.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-BOW, noun In archery, a missive weapon formed by placing a bow athwart a stock.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-BOWER, noun One who shoots with a cross-bow.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSSCUT, verb transitive To cut across.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSSCUT-SAW, noun A saw managed by two men, one at each end.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSSED, participle passive Having a line drawn over; canceled; erased; passed over; thwarted; opposed; obstructed; counteracted.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-EXAMINATION, noun The examination or interrogation of a witness called by one party, by the opposite party or his counsel.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-EXAMINE, verb transitive To examine a witness by the opposite party or his counsel, as the witness for the plaintiff by the defendant, and vice versa.

The opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses has been expressly waived.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-EXAMINED, participle passive Examined or interrogated by the opposite party.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-FLOW, verb intransitive To flow across.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-GRAINED, adjective

1. Having the grain or fibers across or irregular; as in timber, where a branch shoots from the trunk, there is a curling of the grain.

2. Perverse; untractable; not condescending.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSSING, participle present tense Drawing; running or passing a line over; erasing; canceling; thwarting; opposing; counteracting; passing over.

CROSSING, noun A thwarting; impediment; vexation.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-JACK, noun cro-jeck, . A sail extended on the lower yard of the mizen mast; but seldom used.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-LEGGED, adjective Having the legs across.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSSLY, adverb

1. Athwart; so as to intersect something else.

2. Adversely; in opposition; unfortunately.

3. Peevishly; fretfully.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSSNESS, noun Peevishness; fretfulness; ill humor; perverseness.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-PIECE, noun A rail of timber extending over the windlass of a ship, furnished with pins with which to fasten the rigging, as occasion requires.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-PURPOSE, noun A contrary purpose; contradictory system; also, a conversation in which one person does or pretends to misunderstand anothers meaning. An enigma; a riddle.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-QUESTION, verb transitive To cross examine.

Naves Topical Index

General references
Proverbs 20:5

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-WAY, CROSS-ROAD noun A way or road that crosses another road or the chief road; an obscure path intersecting the main road.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary


1. The alphabet, so named because a cross is placed at the beginning, to show that the end of learning is piety.

2. A row that crosses others.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-SEA, noun Waves running across others; a swell running in different directions.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-STAFF, noun An instrument to take the altitude of the sun or stars.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-STONE, noun A mineral called also harmotome, and staurolite. It is almost always in crystals. Its single crystals are rectangular four-sided prisms, broad or compressed, and terminated by four-sided pyramids, with rhombic faces, which stand on the lateral edges. But this mineral is generally found in double crystals, composed of two of the preceding crystals, so intersecting each other, that the broader planes of one prism are perpendicular to the broader planes of the other, throughout their whole length. Its color is a grayish white or milk white, sometimes with a shade of yellow or red.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-TINING, noun In husbandry, a harrowing by drawing the harrow or drag back and forth on the same ground.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-TREES, noun In ships, certain pieces of timber, supported by the cheeks and trestle-trees, at the upper ends of the lower masts, to sustain the frame of the top, and on the top masts, to extend the topgallant shrouds.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-WAY, CROSS-ROAD, noun A way or road that crosses another road or the chief road; an obscure path intersecting the main road.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-WIND, noun A side wind; an unfavorable wind.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-WISE, adverb Across; in the form of a cross.

Webster's 1828 Dictionary

CROSS-WORT, noun A plant of the genus Valantia.