- First Reference: Exodus 31:13
- Last Reference: Hosea 2:11
- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: No
- Included in Naves: No
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: Yes
- Included in Strongs: Yes
- Included in Thayers: No
- Included in BDB: Yes
(Heb. verb shabbath, meaning "to rest from labour"), the day of rest. It is first mentioned as having been instituted in Paradise, when man was in innocence (Genesis 2:2). "The sabbath was made for man," as a day of rest and refreshment for the body and of blessing to the soul.
It is next referred to in connection with the gift of manna to the children of Israel in the wilderness (Exodus 16:23); and afterwards, when the law was given from Sinai (20:11), the people were solemnly charged to "remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." Thus it is spoken of as an institution already existing.
In the Mosaic law strict regulations were laid down regarding its observance (Exodus 35:2, 3; Leviticus 23:3; 26:34). These were peculiar to that dispensation.
In the subsequent history of the Jews frequent references are made to the sanctity of the Sabbath (Isaiah 56:2, 4, 6, 7; 58:13, 14; Jeremiah 17:20-22; Nehemiah 13:19). In later times they perverted the Sabbath by their traditions. Our Lord rescued it from their perversions, and recalled to them its true nature and intent (Matthew 12:10-13; Mark 2:27; Luke 13:10-17).
The Sabbath, originally instituted for man at his creation, is of permanent and universal obligation. The physical necessities of man require a Sabbath of rest. He is so constituted that his bodily welfare needs at least one day in seven for rest from ordinary labour. Experience also proves that the moral and spiritual necessities of men also demand a Sabbath of rest. "I am more and more sure by experience that the reason for the observance of the Sabbath lies deep in the everlasting necessities of human nature, and that as long as man is man the blessedness of keeping it, not as a day of rest only, but as a day of spiritual rest, will never be annulled. I certainly do feel by experience the eternal obligation, because of the eternal necessity, of the Sabbath. The soul withers without it. It thrives in proportion to its observance. The Sabbath was made for man. God made it for men in a certain spiritual state because they needed it. The need, therefore, is deeply hidden in human nature. He who can dispense with it must be holy and spiritual indeed. And he who, still unholy and unspiritual, would yet dispense with it is a man that would fain be wiser than his Maker" (F. W. Robertson).
The ancient Babylonian calendar, as seen from recently recovered inscriptions on the bricks among the ruins of the royal palace, was based on the division of time into weeks of seven days. The Sabbath is in these inscriptions designated Sabattu, and defined as "a day of rest for the heart" and "a day of completion of labour."
The change of the day. Originally at creation the seventh day of the week was set apart and consecrated as the Sabbath. The first day of the week is now observed as the Sabbath. Has God authorized this change? There is an obvious distinction between the Sabbath as an institution and the particular day set apart for its observance. The question, therefore, as to the change of the day in no way affects the perpetual obligation of the Sabbath as an institution. Change of the day or no change, the Sabbath remains as a sacred institution the same. It cannot be abrogated.
If any change of the day has been made, it must have been by Christ or by his authority. Christ has a right to make such a change (Mark 2:23-28). As Creator, Christ was the original Lord of the Sabbath (John 1:3; Hebrews 1:10). It was originally a memorial of creation. A work vastly greater than that of creation has now been accomplished by him, the work of redemption. We would naturally expect just such a change as would make the Sabbath a memorial of that greater work.
True, we can give no text authorizing the change in so many words. We have no express law declaring the change. But there are evidences of another kind. We know for a fact that the first day of the week has been observed from apostolic times, and the necessary conclusion is, that it was observed by the apostles and their immediate disciples. This, we may be sure, they never would have done without the permission or the authority of their Lord.
After his resurrection, which took place on the first day of the week (Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1), we never find Christ meeting with his disciples on the seventh day. But he specially honoured the first day by manifesting himself to them on four separate occasions (Matthew 28:9; Luke 24:34, 18-33; John 20:19-23). Again, on the next first day of the week, Jesus appeared to his disciples (John 20:26).
Some have calculated that Christ's ascension took place on the first day of the week. And there can be no doubt that the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost was on that day (Acts 2:1). Thus Christ appears as instituting a new day to be observed by his people as the Sabbath, a day to be henceforth known amongst them as the "Lord's day." The observance of this "Lord's day" as the Sabbath was the general custom of the primitive churches, and must have had apostolic sanction (comp. Acts 20:3-7; 1 Corinthians 16:1, 2) and authority, and so the sanction and authority of Jesus Christ.
The words "at her sabbaths" (Lamentations 1:7, A.V.) ought probably to be, as in the Revised Version, "at her desolations."
Signifying a rest period
Genesis 2:2-3; Genesis 3:23; Genesis 3:25; Leviticus 26:34-35
Exodus 16:22; Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54; John 19:31
Religious usages on
Genesis 2:3; Mark 6:2; Luke 4:16; Luke 4:31; Luke 6:6; Luke 13:10; Acts 13:14
Numbers 28:9-10; Ezekiel 46:4-5
Unclassified scriptures relating to
Genesis 2:2-3; Exodus 16:5; Exodus 16:23-30; Exodus 20:8-11; Exodus 23:12; Exodus 31:13-17; Exodus 34:21; Exodus 35:2-3; Leviticus 19:3; Leviticus 19:30; Leviticus 23:1-3; Leviticus 23:27-32; Leviticus 16:29-31; Leviticus 24:8; 1 Chronicles 9:32; Leviticus 26:2; Leviticus 26:34-35; Numbers 15:32-36; Numbers 28:9-10; Deuteronomy 5:12-15; 2 Kings 4:23; 2 Chronicles 36:21; Nehemiah 9:13-14; Nehemiah 10:31; Nehemiah 13:15-22; Psalms 92:1-15; Psalms 118:24; Isaiah 1:13; Isaiah 56:2; Isaiah 56:4-7; Isaiah 58:13-14; Isaiah 66:23; Jeremiah 17:21-22; Jeremiah 17:24-25; Jeremiah 17:27; Lamentations 1:7; Lamentations 2:6; Ezekiel 20:12-13; Ezekiel 20:16; Ezekiel 20:20-21; Ezekiel 20:24; Ezekiel 22:8; Ezekiel 23:38; Ezekiel 44:24; Ezekiel 46:1; Ezekiel 46:3; Hosea 2:11; Amos 8:5; Matthew 12:1-8; Matthew 12:10-13; Luke 6:1-10; Matthew 24:20; Mark 2:27-28; Mark 6:2; Mark 16:1; Luke 4:16; Luke 4:31; Luke 13:10-17; Luke 14:1-6; Luke 23:54; Luke 23:56; John 5:5-14; John 7:21-24; John 9:1-34; John 19:31; Acts 13:14; Acts 13:27; Acts 13:42; Acts 13:44; Acts 15:21; Acts 16:13; Acts 17:2; Acts 18:4; Colossians 2:16; Hebrews 4:4; Hebrews 4:9
Nehemiah 13:15; Nehemiah 13:21
By the women preparing to embalm the body of Jesus
By the disciples
Violations of, instances of:
Violations of, instances of:
Men of Tyre
Inhabitants of Jerusalem
Christian Sabbath, first day of the week, Sunday
Mark 16:9; Matthew 28:1; Matthew 28:5-6; Matthew 28:9; John 20:19; John 20:1; John 20:11-16; John 20:26; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2; Revelation 1:10
(shabbath), "a day of rest," from shabath "to cease to do to," "to rest"). The name is applied to divers great festivals, but principally and usually to the seventh day of the week, the strict observance of which is enforced not merely in the general Mosaic code, but in the Decalogue itself. The consecration of the Sabbath was coeval with the creation. The first scriptural notice of it, though it is not mentioned by name, is to be found in (Genesis 2:3) at the close of the record of the six-days creation. There are not wanting indirect evidences of its observance, as the intervals between Noah's sending forth the birds out of the ark, an act naturally associated with the weekly service, (Genesis 8:7-12) and in the week of a wedding celebration, (Genesis 29:27,28) but when a special occasion arises, in connection with the prohibition against gathering manna on the Sabbath, the institution is mentioned as one already known. (Exodus 16:22-30) And that this (All this is confirmed by the great antiquity of the division of time into weeks, and the naming the days after the sun, moon and planets.) was especially one of the institutions adopted by Moses from the ancient patriarchal usage is implied in the very words of the law "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy." But even if such evidence were wanting, the reason of the institution would be a sufficient proof. It was to be a joyful celebration of God's completion of his creation. It has indeed been said that Moses gives quite a different reason for the institution of the Sabbath, as a memorial of the deliverance front Egyptian bondage. (5:15) The words added in Deuteronomy are a special motive for the joy with which the Sabbath should be celebrated and for the kindness which extended its blessings to the slave and the beast of burden as well as to the master: "that thy man servant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thought. (5:14) These attempts to limit the ordinance proceed from an entire misconception of its spirit, as if it were a season of stern privation rather than of special privilege. But in truth, the prohibition of work is only subsidiary to the positive idea of joyful rest and recreation in communion with Jehovah, who himself "rested and was refreshed." (Exodus 31:17) comp. (Exodus 23:12) It is in (Exodus 16:23-29) that we find the first incontrovertible institution of the day, as one given to and to be kept by the children of Isr'l. Shortly afterward it was re-enacted in the Fourth Commandment. This beneficent character of the Fourth Commandment is very apparent in the version of it which we find in Deuteronomy. (5:12-15) The law and the Sabbath are placed upon the same ground, and to give rights to classes that would otherwise have been without such
to the bondman and bondmaid may, to the beast of the field-is viewed here as their main end. "The stranger," too is comprehended in the benefit. But the original proclamation of it in Exodus places it on a ground which, closely connected no doubt with these others is yet higher and more comprehensive. The divine method of working and rest is there propose to work and to rest. Time then to man as the model after which presented a perfect whole it is most important to remember that the Fourth Commandment is not limited to a mere enactment respecting one day, but prescribes the due distribution of a week, and enforces the six days' work as much as the seventh day's rest. This higher ground of observance was felt to invest the Sabbath with a theological character, and rendered if the great witness for faith in a personal and creating God. It was to be a sacred pause in the ordinary labor which man earns his bread the curse the fall was to be suspended for one and, having spent that day in joyful remembrance of God's mercies, man had a fresh start in his course of labor. A great snare, too, has always been hidden in the word work, as if the commandment forbade occupation and imposed idleness. The terms in the commandment show plainly enough the sort of work which is contemplated-servile work and business. The Pentateuch presents us with but three applications of the general principle
(Exodus 16:29; 35:3; Numbers 15:32-36) The reference of Isaiah to the Sabbath gives us no details. The references in Jeremiah and Nehemiah show that carrying goods for sale, and buying such, were equally profanations of the day. A consideration of the spirit of the law and of Christ's comments on it will show that it is work for worldly gain that was to be suspended; and hence the restrictive clause is prefaced with the restrictive command. "Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work;" for so only could the sabbatic rest be fairly earned. Hence, too, the stress constantly laid on permitting the servant and beast of burden to share the rest which selfishness would grudge to them. Thus the spirit of the Sabbath was joy, refreshment and mercy, arising from remembrance of God's goodness as Creator and as the Deliverer from bondage. The Sabbath was a perpetual sign and covenant, and the holiness of the day is collected with the holiness of the people; "that ye may know that I am Jehovah that doth sanctify you." (Exodus 31:12-17; Ezekiel 20:12) Joy was the key-note Of their service. Nehemiah commanded the people, on a day holy to Jehovah "Mourn not, nor weep: eat the fat, and drink: the sweet, and send portions to them for whom nothing is prepared." (Nehemiah 8:9-13) The Sabbath is named as a day of special worship in the sanctuary. (Leviticus 19:30; 26:2) It was proclaimed as a holy convocation. (Leviticus 23:3) In later times the worship of the sanctuary was enlivened by sacred music. (Psalms 68:25-27; 150:1)... etc. On this day the people were accustomed to consult their prophets, (2 Kings 4:23) and to give to their children that instruction in the truths recalled to memory by the day which is so repeatedly enjoined as the duty of parents; it was "the Sabbath of Jehovah" not only in the sanctuary, but "in all their dwellings." (Leviticus 23:3) When we come to the New Testament we find the most marked stress laid on the Sabbath. In whatever ways the Jew might err respecting it, he had altogether ceased to neglect it. On the contrary wherever he went its observance became the most visible badge of his nationality. Our Lord's mode of observing the Sabbath was one of the main features of his life, which his Pharisaic adversaries meet eagerly watched and criticized. They had invented many prohibitions respecting the Sabbath of which we find nothing in the original institution. Some of these prohibitions were fantastic and arbitrary, in the number of those "heavy burdens and grievous to be borne" while the latter expounders of the law "laid on men's shoulders." Comp. (Matthew 12:1-13; John 5:10) That this perversion of the Sabbath had become very general in our Saviour's time is apparent both from the recorded objections to acts of his on that day and from his marked conduct on occasions to which those objections were sure to be urged. (Matthew 12:1-16; Mark 3:2; Luke 6:1-5; 13:10-17; John 6:2-18; 7:23; 9:1-34) Christ's words do not remit the duty of keeping the Sabbath, but only deliver it from the false methods of keeping which prevented it from bestowing upon men the spiritual blessings it was ordained to confer.
1. The day which God appointed to be observed by the Jews as a day of rest from all secular labor or employments, and to be kept holy and consecrated to his service and worship. This was originally the seventh day of the week, the day on which God rested from the work of creation; and this day is still observed by the Jews and some christians, as the sabbath But the christian church very early begun and still continue to observe the first day of the week, in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ on that day, by which the work of redemption was completed. Hence it is often called the Lords day. The heathen nations in the north of Europe dedicated this day to the sun, and hence their christian descendants continue to call the day Sunday. But in the United States, christians have to a great extent discarded the heathen name, and adopted the Jewish name sabbath
2. Intermission of pain or sorrow; time of rest.
Peaceful sleep out the sabbath of the tomb.
3. The sabbatical year among the Israelites. Leviticus 25:2.
Supposed to be a distance of 2,000 cubits, or less than half-a-mile, the distance to which, according to Jewish tradition, it was allowable to travel on the Sabbath day without violating the law (Acts 1:12; comp. Exodus 16:29; Numbers 35:5; Joshua 3:4).
About two thousand paces.
SABBATH-BREAKER, noun One who profanes the sabbath by violating the laws of God or man which enjoin the religious observance of that day.
SABBATH-BREAKING, noun A profanation of the sabbath by violating the injunction of the fourth commandment, or the municipal laws of a state which require the observance of that day as holy time. All unnecessary secular labor, visiting, traveling, sports, amusements and the like are considered as sabbath-breaking
(Acts 1:12) The law as regards travel on the Sabbath is found in (Exodus 16:29) As some departure from a man's own place was unavoidable, it was thought necessary to determine the allowable amount, which was fixed at 2000 paces, or about six furlongs from the wall of the city. The permitted distance seems to have been grounded on the space to he kept between the ark and the people, (Joshua 3:4) in the wilderness, which tradition said was that between the ark and the tents. We find the same distance given as the circumference outside the walls of the Levitical cities to be counted as their suburbs. (Numbers 33:5) The terminus a quo was thus not a man's own house, but the wall of the city where he dwelt.
SABBATHLESS, adjective Without intermission of labor.