- Included in Eastons: Yes
- Included in Hitchcocks: No
- Included in Naves: No
- Included in Smiths: Yes
- Included in Websters: Yes
- Included in Strongs: No
- Included in Thayers: No
- Included in BDB: No
Is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan (Joshua 12:9, 24), whom Joshua subdued. Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judges 1:7). In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1 Peter 2:13, 17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called a king (Matthew 14:9; Mark 6:22).
This title is applied to God (1 Timothy 1:17), and to Christ, the Son of God (1 Timothy 6:15, 16; Matthew 27:11). The people of God are also called "kings" (Daniel 7:22, 27; Matthew 19:28; Revelation 1:6, etc.). Death is called the "king of terrors" (Job 18:14).
Jehovah was the sole King of the Jewish nation (1 Samuel 8:7; Isaiah 33:22). But there came a time in the history of that people when a king was demanded, that they might be like other nations (1 Samuel 8:5). The prophet Samuel remonstrated with them, but the people cried out, "Nay, but we will have a king over us." The misconduct of Samuel's sons was the immediate cause of this demand.
The Hebrew kings did not rule in their own right, nor in name of the people who had chosen them, but partly as servants and partly as representatives of Jehovah, the true King of Israel (1 Samuel 10:1). The limits of the king's power were prescribed (1 Samuel 10:25). The officers of his court were, (1) the recorder or remembrancer (2 Samuel 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3); (2) the scribe (2 Samuel 8:17; 20:25); (3) the officer over the house, the chief steward (Isaiah 22:15); (4) the "king's friend," a confidential companion (1 Kings 4:5); (5) the keeper of the wardrobe (2 Kings 22:14); (6) captain of the bodyguard (2 Samuel 20:23); (7) officers over the king's treasures, etc. (1 Chronicles 27:25-31); (8) commander-in-chief of the army (1 Chronicles 27:34); (9) the royal counsellor (1 Chronicles 27:32; 2 Samuel 16:20-23). (For catalogue of kings of Israel and Judah see chronological table in Appendix.)
Deuteronomy 17:15; 1 Samuel 9:16-17; 1 Samuel 16:12; 1 Chronicles 22:10; 2 Chronicles 2:11-12; Proverbs 8:15; Daniel 2:21; Daniel 2:37; Daniel 4:17; Daniel 5:20; Hosea 8:4; Hosea 13:11
By divine appointment:
1 Samuel 10:1
David and the Davidic dynasty
1 Samuel 16:1-13
1 Chronicles 1:43-51
Modes of induction into office:
By an oath
2 Kings 11:4
Ceremonial recognition of:
1 Kings 1:16
Obedience to, enjoined
Exercise executive clemency
1 Samuel 11:13
Influenced by popular opinion:
2 Chronicles 20:21
2 Chronicles 30:2
Influence of queens over:
1 Kings 1:28-34
Emoluments (compensations) of:
Tariff on imports, and internal revenue on merchandise
1 Kings 10:15-29
Chief officers of:
Collector of tribute
2 Samuel 20:24
1 Kings 4:5
Subordinate officers of:
1 Kings 16:9
1 Kings 20:16
Prayer for, enjoined
1 Timothy 2:1-2
Chronicles of, kept
1 Kings 11:41; 1 Kings 14:19; 2 Kings 21:25; 1 Chronicles 9:1; 1 Chronicles 27:24; 1 Chronicles 29:29; 2 Chronicles 9:29; 2 Chronicles 12:15; 2 Chronicles 20:34; 2 Chronicles 26:22; 2 Chronicles 32:32; Ezra 5:17; Esther 6:1
The kings of Israel, before and after the revolt of the ten tribes
"a chief ruler, one invested with supreme authority over a nation, tribe or country."
Webster. In the Bible the word does not necessarily imply great power or great extent of country. Many persons are called kings whom we should rather call chiefs or leaders. The word is applied in the Bible to God as the sovereign and ruler of the universe, and to Christ the Son of God as the head and governor of the Church. The Hebrews were ruled by a king during a period of about 500 years previous to the destruction of Jerusalem, B.C. 586. The immediate occasion of the substitution of a regal form of government for that of judges seems to have been the siege of Jabesh-gilead by Nahash king of the Ammonites. (1 Samuel 11:1; 12:12) The conviction seems to have forced itself on the Isr'lites that they could not resist their formidable neighbor unless they placed themselves under the sway of a king, like surrounding nations. The original idea of a Hebrew King was twofold: first, that he should lead the people to battle in time of war; and, a second, that he should execute judgment and justice to them in war and in peace. (1 Samuel 8:20) In both respects the desired end was attained. Besides being commander-in-chief of the army, supreme judge, and absolute master, as it were, of the lives of his subjects, the king exercised the power of imposing taxes on them, and of exacting from them personal service and labor. In addition to these earthly powers, the king of Isr'l had a more awful claim to respect and obedience. He was the vicegerent of Jehovah, (1 Samuel 10:1; 16:13) and as it were his son, if just and holy. (2 Samuel 7:14; Psalms 2:6,7; 89:26,27) he had been set apart as a consecrated ruler. Upon his dead had been poured the holy anointing oil, which had hitherto been reserved exclusively for the priests of Jehovah. He had become, in fact, emphatically "the Lord's anointed." He had a court of Oriental magnificence. The king was dressed in royal robes, (1 Kings 22:10; 2 Chronicles 18:9) his insignia were, a crown or diadem of pure gold, or perhaps radiant with precious gems, (2 Samuel 1:10; 12:30; 2 Kings 11:12; Psalms 21:3) and a royal sceptre. Those who approached him did him obeisance, bowing down and touching the ground with their foreheads, (1 Samuel 24:8; 2 Samuel 19:24) and this was done even by a king's wife, the mother of Solomon. (1 Kings 1:16) His officers and subjects called themselves his servants or slaves. He had a large harem, which was guarded by eunuchs. The law of succession to the throne is somewhat obscure, but it seems most probable that the king during his lifetime named his successor. At the same time, if no partiality for a favorite wife or son intervened, there would always be a natural bias of affection in favor of the eldest son.
1. The chief or sovereign of a nation; a man invested with supreme authority over a nation, tribe or country; a monarch. Kings are absolute monarchs, when they possess the powers of government without control, or the entire sovereignty over a nation; they are limited monarchs, when their power is restrained by fixed laws; and they are absolute, when they possess the whole legislative, judicial, and executive power, or when the legislative or judicial powers, or both, are vested in other bodies of men. Kings are hereditary sovereigns, when they hold the powers of government by right of birth or inheritance, and elective, when raised to the throne by choice.
KINGs will be tyrants from policy, when subjects are rebels from principle.
2. A sovereign; a prince; a ruler. Christ is called the king of his church. Psalms 2:6
3. A card having the picture of a king; as the king of diamonds.
4. The chief piece in the game of chess.
KING at arms, an officer in England of great antiquity, and formerly of great authority, whose business is to direct the heralds, preside at their chapters, and have the jurisdiction of armory. There are three kings at arms, vix.garter, clarencieux, and norroy. The latter [northroy] officiates north of the Trent.
KING, verb transitive In ludicrous language, to supply with a king or to make royal; to raise to royalty.
KING'APPLE, noun A kind of apple, so called.
KING'S BENCH, noun A high court or tribunal in England; so called because the king used to sit there in person. It is the supreme court of common law, consisting of a chief justice and three other justices.
KING'BIRD, noun A fowl of the genus Paradisea; also, a species of the genus Muscicapa, so called from its courage in attacking larger fowls.
KING'CR'AFT, noun The craft of kings; the act of governing; usually in a bad sense.
KING'CUP, noun A flower, crowfoot.
KING'DOM, noun [king and dom, jurisdiction.]
1. The territory or country subject to a king; an undivided territory under the dominion of a king or monarch. The foreign possessions of a king are not usually included in the term kingdom Thus we speak of the kingdom of England, of France or of Spain, without including the East or West Indies.
2. The inhabitants or population subject to a king. The whole kingdom was alarmed.
3. In natural history, a division; as the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms.
4. A region; a tract; the place where any thing prevails and holds sway; as the watery kingdom
6. The power of supreme administration. 1 Samuel 18:8.
7. A princely nation or state.
Ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests. Exodus 19:6.
8. Heaven. Matthew 26:29.
9. State of glory in heaven. Matthew 5:3.
10. The reign of the Messiah. Mat 3.
11. Government; rule; supreme administration.
(Matthew 6:33; Mark 1:14, 15; Luke 4:43) = "kingdom of Christ" (Matthew 13:41; 20:21) = "kingdom of Christ and of God" (Ephesians 5:5) = "kingdom of David" (Mark 11:10) = "the kingdom" (Matthew 8:12; 13:19) = "kingdom of heaven" (Matthew 3:2; 4:17; 13:41), all denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.- (1) Christ's mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2) the blessings and advantages of all kinds that flow from this rule; (3) the subjects of this kingdom taken collectively, or the Church.
A king who called his servants to a reckoning
My kingdom is not of this world
Glad tidings of
KING'DOMED, adjective Proud of royalty.
KING'FISHER, noun A fowl of the genus Alcedo.
KING'HOOD, noun State of being a king.
KING'LESS, adjective Having no king.
KING'LIKE, adjective Like a king.
KING'LING, noun A little king.
KING'LY, adjective Belonging to a king; suitable to a king; as a kingly couch.
1. Royal; sovereign; monarchical; as a kingly government.
2. Noble; august; splendid; becoming a king; as kingly magnificence.
KING'LY, adverb With an air of royalty; with a superior dignity.
Low bow'd the rest; he, kingly did but nod.
One of the three special relations in which Christ stands to his people. Christ's office as mediator comprehends three different functions, viz., those of a prophet, priest, and king. These are not three distinct offices, but three functions of the one office of mediator.
Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all things to his Church (Ephesians 1:22; 4:15; Colossians 1:18; 2:19). He executes this mediatorial kingship in his Church, and over his Church, and over all things in behalf of his Church. This royalty differs from that which essentially belongs to him as God, for it is given to him by the Father as the reward of his obedience and sufferings (Philippians 2:6-11), and has as its especial object the upbuilding and the glory of his redeemed Church. It attaches, moreover, not to his divine nature as such, but to his person as God-man.
Christ's mediatorial kingdom may be regarded as comprehending, (1) his kingdom of power, or his providential government of the universe; (2) his kingdom of grace, which is wholly spiritual in its subjects and administration; and (3) his kingdom of glory, which is the consummation of all his providential and gracious administration.
Christ sustained and exercised the function of mediatorial King as well as of Prophet and Priest, from the time of the fall of man, when he entered on his mediatorial work; yet it may be said that he was publicly and formally enthroned when he ascended up on high and sat down at the Father's right hand (Psalms 2:6; Jeremiah 23:5; Isaiah 9:6), after his work of humiliation and suffering on earth was "finished."
of Judah and Isr'l. For the list see table at the end of this volume.
originally only one book in the Hebrew canon, from in the LXX. and the Vulgate the third and fourth books of Kings (the books of Samuel being the first and second). It must be remembered that the division between the books of Kings and Samuel is equally artificial, and that in point of fact the historical books commencing with Judges and ending with 2Kings present the appearance of one work, giving a continuous history of Isr'l from the time of Joshua to the death of jehoiachin. The books of Kings contain the history from David's death and Solomon's accession to the destruction of the kingdom of Judah and the desolation of Jerusalem, with a supplemental notice of an event that occurred after an interval of twenty-six years
viz., the liberation of Jehoiachin from his prison at Babylon
and a still further extension to Jehoiachin's death, the time of which is not known, but which was probably not long after his liberation. The history therefore comprehends the whole time of the Isr'litish monarchy, exclusive of the reigns of Saul and David. As regards the affairs of foreign nations and the relation of Isr'l to them, the historical notices in these books, though in the earlier times scanty, are most valuable, and in striking accord with the latest additions to our knowledge of contemporary profane history. A most important aid to a right understanding of the history in these books, and to the filling up of its outline, is to be found in the prophets, and especially in Isaiah and Jeremiah. Time when written.
They were undoubtedly written during the period of the captivity, probably after the twenty-sixth year. Authorship.
As regards the authorship of the books, but little difficulty presents itself. The Jewish tradition which ascribes them to Jeremiah is borne out by the strongest internal evidence, in addition to that of the language. Sources of information.
There was a regular series of state annals for both the kingdom of Judah and that of Isr'l, which embraced the whole time comprehended in the books of Kings, or at least to the end of the reign of Jehoiakim. (2 Kings 24:5) These annals are constantly cited by name as "the book of the acts of Solomon," (1 Kings 11:41) and after Solomon "the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah" or "Isr'l," e.g. (1 Kings 14:29; 15:7; 16:5,14,20; 2 Kings 10:34; 24:5) etc.; and it is manifest that the author of Kings had them both before him while he drew up his history, in which the reigns of the two kingdoms are harmonized and these annals constantly appealed to. But in addition to these national annals, there, were also extant, at the time that the books of Kings were compiled, separate works of the several prophets who had lived in Judah and Isr'l. Authority.
Their canonical authority having never been disputed, it is needless to bring forward the testimonies to their authenticity which may be found in Josephus, Eusebius, jerome, Augustine, etc. They are reckoned among the prophets, in the threefold division of the Holy Scriptures; a position in accordance with the supposition that they were compiled by Jeremiah, and contain the narratives of the different prophets in succession. They are frequently cited by our Lord and by the apostles.
The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings.
They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The books of Chronicles (q.v.) are more comprehensive in their contents than those of Kings. The latter synchronize with 1 Chronicles 28-2 Chronicles 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the kingly.
The authorship of these books is uncertain. There are some portions of them and of Jeremiah that are almost identical, e.g., 2 Kings 24:18-25 and Jeremiah 52; 39:1-10; 40:7-41:10. There are also many undesigned coincidences between Jeremiah and Kings (2 Kings 21-23 and Jeremiah 7:15; 15:4; 19:3, etc.), and events recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge. These facts countenance in some degree the tradition that Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings. But the more probable supposition is that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled them from documents written perhaps by David, Solomon, Nathan, Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which they now exist.
In the threefold division of the Scriptures by the Jews, these books are ranked among the "Prophets." They are frequently quoted or alluded to by our Lord and his apostles (Matthew 6:29; 12:42; Luke 4:25, 26; 10:4; comp. 2 Kings 4:29; Mark 1:6; comp. 2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4, etc.).
The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) "the book of the acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41); (2) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.); (3) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel" (14:19; 15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.).
The date of its composition was some time between B.C. 561, the date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and B.C. 538, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus.
KING'S-EVIL, noun A disease of the scrofulous kind.
KING'SHIP, noun Royalty; the state, office or dignity of a king.
KING'S-SPEAR, noun A plant of the genus Asphodelus.
KING'STONE, noun A fish.